Economic Census gives the basic entrepreneurial data for planning and development in the State specially for unorganized sectors of the economy. It is 100% centrally sponsored scheme of the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation, Government of India. Five Economic Census have been conducted earlier throughout the country during the year 1977,1980,1990, 1998, 2005, 2013 and 2019. Information collected under Economic Census provides updated frame for conducting detailed follow up surveys.
Implementation framework of ECensus through IT Application – The Economic Census is being conducted in every year with advanced use of ICT tools & applications that would facilitate geo-coordinate embedded data collection through mobile devices, real-time data validation & scrutiny, efficient monitoring & supervision using interactive MIS dashboards, finalization & dissemination of results, etc.
The Economic Census is a complete count of all establishments located within the geographical boundary of India.
Economic Census provides disaggregated information on various operational and structural variables of all establishments of the country. It also provides valuable insights into geographical spread/clusters of economic activities, ownership patterns, persons engaged, etc. of all economic establishments in the country. All this information is very important for policymakers in the government at all levels for evolving policy interventions. It also provides an updated sampling frame for follow-up enterprise surveys undertaken for detailed and comprehensive analysis of all establishments in the country.
What is the economic census India?
- Indian economic census is the census of the Indian economy through counting all entrepreneurial units in the country which were involved in any economic activities of either agricultural or non-agricultural sector, which engaged in production and/or distribution of goods and/or services.
- It provides detailed information on operational and other characteristics such as number of establishments, number of persons employed, source of finance, type of ownership etc.
- This information is used for micro level/ decentralized planning and to assess contribution of various sectors of the economy in the GDP.
- In 1977, the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) conducted the First economic census in collaboration with the Directorate of Economics & Statistics (DES) in the States/Union Territories.
- It is conducted once in 5 years.
- However, the economic censuses of 1980 and 1990 were integrated with the house-listing operations of the population census.
- All other economic censuses were conducted by the DES of the states under the overall guidance of the CSO.
Why Economic Census India?
Economic Census gives a detailed account of the state of the economy, prospects and the policy challenges. It carries sectoral overviews and comments on reform measures that are required. The survey’s outlook serves as a marker about future policy moves. As such the Economic Census serves the following requirements:
Economic Census is a tool to deepen our understanding of the economic scenario and make policies and programmes more meaningl=ful and effective. It also helps us model future decisions better.
- A nation-wide Dynamic Statistical Business Register as per international practices adopted by developing countries and in line with the UNSD recommendations.
- Detailed information on economic variables, activity-wise, of all the non-agricultural establishments of the country including its distribution at all India, State, District, Village/Ward levels for comprehensive analysis of the structure of the economy
- Information on establishments registered under the MSME Development Act, their assets and other economic criteria
- Information on the number of workers working in establishments (which are under operation), activity-wise and area wise
- List of all establishments, tagged by geographical location up to village/ward level for local-level planning purposes
History of the Economic Census India
In 1976, the Government of India launched a planning scheme called “Economic Census and Surveys”. In 1977 Central Statistical Organization conducted a first economic census in collaboration with the Directorate of Economics & Statistics (DES) in the States/Union Territories.
The economic censuses of 1980 and 1990 were integrated with the house listing operations of the population census. The data collected by the census organization were handed over to the state Directorates of Economics and Statistics for processing and publication.
All other economic censuses were conducted by the Directorates of Economics and Statistics of the states under the overall guidance of the Central Statistical Office (CSO)
Coverage of Economic Census
- Economic Census is the complete count of all entrepreneurial units located within the geographical boundaries of the Country.
- Information on number of establishments and employment in all type of establishments, unpaid/paid workers, female workers, child workers, ownership of establishments, use of power, registration of establishments, source of finance etc. is collected.
- Complete address of enterprises having 10 or more workers is recorded.
Indian Economic Census
Indian economic census is the census of the Indian economy through counting all entrepreneurial units in the country which involved in any economic activities of either agricultural or non-agricultural sector which engaged in production and/or distribution of goods and/or services not for the sole purpose of own consumption.
The economic census provides detailed information on operational and other characteristics such as number of establishments, number of persons employed, source of finance, type of ownership etc. These information used for micro level/ decentralized planning and to assess contribution of various sectors of the economy in the gross domestic product (GDP).
Economic Census 1st to 7th
In 1976, Government of India launched a plan scheme called Economic Census and Surveys. In 1977 Central Statistical Organization conducted First economic census in collaboration with the Directorate of Economics & Statistics (DES) in the States/Union Territories. The economic censuses of 1980 and 1990 were integrated with the house-listing operations of the population census. However, the data collected by the census organization were handed over to the state Directorates of economics and Statistics for processing and publication. All other economic censuses were conducted by the Directorates of Economics and Statistics of the states under the overall guidance of the Central Statistical Office.
|First Economic Census||1977|
|Second Economic Census||1980|
|Third Economic Census||1990||India – Third Economic Census 1990|
|Fourth Economic Census||1998||India – Fourth Economic Census 1998|
|Fifth Economic Census||2005||India – Fifth Economic Census 2005|
|Sixth Economic Census||2013||All India Report of Sixth Economic Census Book PDF|
|Seventh Economic Census||2019||Seventh Economic Census India Book PDF|
Economic Census (EC) is the complete count of all establishments/units located within the geographical boundaries of the State/Country at a given period of time involved in any economic activity of either agricultural or nonagricultural sectors establishments (excluding crop production and plantation and the establishments engaged in public administration, defence, compulsory social security activities etc.) engaged in the production or distribution of goods or services not for solely purpose of own consumption.
The basic purpose of timely conduct of the economic census at frequent intervals generally not exceeding 5 years is to prepare a frame for follow up surveys intended to collect more detailed information to assess the rapid changes that occur in the unorganized sectors of non-agricultural economy due to high mobility or morbidity of smaller units and new units, and their growth, Dispersal and contribution to State Income.
So far Six ECs have been conducted during 1977,1980,1990,1998, 2005 and 2013, by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation,(MOSPI), Government of India.According to the time schedule, during the year 2019, the Government of India has decided to conduct the national wide Economic Census, 7th in the
series, through an outsourcing agency CSC (Common Service Centre) eGovernance Services Limited for ensuring higher quality of data, using an advanced ICT (information & Communication Technology) tools & applications, The field enumeration work of 7th EC has to be taken up from 01.07.2019 to
Brief Results Of The Fifth Economic Census
Total Number of Establishments
- Rural: 457950 (54.92%)
- Urban: 375948 (45.08%)
- Combined: 833898 (100.0%)
2. Of which Number of Establishments
(a) Without Premises
- Rural: 63413 (13.85%)
- Urban: 40951 (10.89% )
- Combined: 104364 (12.52% )
(b) Having 10 or more Workers
- Rural: 8039 (1.75%)
- Urban: 9394 (2.50% )
- Combined: 17433 (2.09% )
Total Number of Person Employed in Establishments
- Rural: 1111460 (49.51%)
- Urban: 1133357 (50.49% )
- Combined: 2244817 (100.00% )
4. Annual Growth Rate in Establishments over Economic Census 1998
- Rural: (9.84%)
- Urban: (3.50%)
- Combined: (6.61%)
5. Annual Growth Rate in Total Employment over Economic Census 1998
- Rural: 9.33%
- Urban: 2.34%
- Combined: 5.35%
Summary of final results of 6th Economic Census as follows.
- The Sixth Economic Census (EC) covered all States and Union Territories and was conducted during January, 2013 to April, 2014 in collaboration with State/UT Governments.
- The EC enumerated all establishments engaged in various agricultural and non-agricultural activities excluding crop production, plantation, public administration, defence and compulsory social security.
- Data for handicraft/handloom establishments were collected for the first time.
- Enumeration Blocks (EBs) of Population Census, 2011 were used as the primary geographical units for collection of data.
- Around 58.5 million establishments were found to be in operation out of which 77.6% establishments were engaged in non-agricultural activities.
- Livestock was the major economic activity (86.74%) of the agricultural sector.
- Around 96.4% establishments were under private ownership and the remaining 3.6% establishments reported their ownership as Government or PSU.
- Proprietary establishments were 89.39%.
- Top five states namely Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh together accounted for about 50% of the total number of establishments in the country.
- Around 51.71% were employed in rural areas and 48.29% in urban areas.
- The growth rate of employment since 2005 was of the order of 38.13%.
- Manufacturing sector was the largest employer providing employment to 30.3 million (23.1%) persons.
- Total number of establishments owned by women entrepreneurs was 8.05 million (13.76%), out of which about 34.3% belonged to agricultural activities.
- Among the states, the largest share in the number of establishments under women entrepreneurship was held by Tamil Nadu followed by Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.
- Total number of Handicraft/Handloom establishments was 1.87 million which provided employment to 4.2 million persons.
- Among the States, West Bengal had the largest share in total number of Handicraft/Handloom establishments followed by Uttar Pradesh and Odisha.
No.of Households covered under 6th EC 1,49,15,139
(i) Rural 1,06,39,713
(ii) Urban 42,75,426
No.of Establishments 42,42,757
No.of Persons Employed – Male 5707925
Female 2883130 85,91,055
No.of Handicraft &
Handloom Establishments 1,41,297
No.of Persons Employed in Handicraft &
Handloom Establishments 2,53,975
No.of Establishments with 8 or more persons
Employed (Directory of Establishments) 44,099
No.of persons employed in establishments
With 8 or more workers 12,02,665
No.of Women Entrepreneur Establishments 6,37,283
No.of Persons Employed under women Entrepreneur
No.of Own proprietary Establishments 32,70,913
No.of establishments with at least one hired 9,71,844
No.of Agricultural Establishments 14,61,466
No.of Non-Agricultural Establishments 27,81,291
(i) Service Activities 20,19,606
(ii) Other than Service Activities 7,61,685
Total Growth Rate over 5th
Economic Census : Establishments 58.11%
: Persons Employed 37.61%
CAGR (Compound Annual
Growth Rate) over 5th EC : Establishments 5.89%
Persons Employed 4.07%
Summary of final results of 7th Economic Census as follows.
The 7th Economic Census was launched in the National Capital Territory of Delhi. It is being carried out by the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation (MoSPI) in collaboration with Common Service Centre (CSC), a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) under Ministry of Electronics and IT.
- For the first time, an IT-based digital platform is being used for data capture, validation, report generation and dissemination will be used.
- A comprehensive training strategy has been evolved to impart training to enumerators and supervisors engaged in the Census.
- It is conducted every five years and very crucial for framing of policies and planning for the government and other organisations.
- It was held in 1978 for the first time and this is the 7th Census which will provide disaggregated information on various operational and structural aspects of all establishments in the country.
- The census will provide valuable insights into geographical spread/clusters of economic activities, ownership pattern; persons engaged etc. of the establishments engaged in economic activity.
- The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) has tied up with CSC e-Governance Service for the 7th Economic Census.
- For the first time, the entire Census is being conducted on a digital platform by the use of an application which will ensure high accuracy and data security.
- The application will ensure that there is no data breach and as soon as any data is fed in the application, it is stored in the cloud and no one can access it without permission.
- Over 1.5 lakh trained enumerators have been deployed for the nationwide survey who will visit 35 crore establishments and households to carry out the Census.
- The fieldwork for the Census started in June 2019.