Computer Science



Teaching & Learning:- Meaning, Process & Characteristics.(शिक्षण एवं अधिगम:- अर्थ, प्रक्रिया एवं विशेषताएँ)


Teaching Objectives and Instructional objectives (अनुदेशात्मक उद्देश्य) : Meaning & Types, Blooms
Taxonomy(वर्गीकरण).(शिक्षण उद्देश्य और अनुदेशात्मक उद्देश्य: अर्थ और प्रकार, ब्लूम


Teaching Methods: – Types and its Characteristics, Merit, and demerits of
Methods.(शिक्षण विधियाँ: – विधियों के प्रकार और उनकी विशेषताएँ, गुण और दोष)

Table 1. Advantages and disadvantages of different teaching methods used in primary care

Teaching methods Advantages Disadvantages
  • Efficient, cheap way of conveying a topic to a large audience
  • One-way speaker communication with no active learner participation
  • Difficult to maintain learners� interest
  • Does not appear to be effective in changing a physician�s performance
  • Promotes adult learning
  • Encourages learners to solve problems, connect, prioritise, and incorporate conceptual knowledge
  • Affects the development of attitudes and values
  • Promotes social and intellectual experience�
  • Develops oral presentation skills
  • Labour intensive
  • Promotes independent, active learning
  • Encourages problem-solving skills
  • Information can be better retained
  • Higher learner satisfaction
  • Can effect changes in professional practice
  • Develops interpersonal skills and teamwork
  • Resource intensive
  • Small numbers of learners
  • Facilitator needs to understand group dynamics
  • Dependent on facilitator�s skills
Clinical teaching
  • Promotes clinical examination, diagnostic and management skills
  • Labour intensive
Observation of teacher by learner
  • Allows observation of experienced clinicians� consultations and practices
  • Boring, as it is less interactive
Observation of learner by teacher
  • Highly contextualised
  • Easily remembered
  • Good for formative assessment
  • Lacks self-assessment
  • Labour intensive
  • Time-consuming
  • Improves verbal communication skills
  • Useful tool to analyse the consultation process
  • Cheap and reviews can be done at a convenient time
  • Patient refusal
  • Sanitisation of views expressed by the patient for fear of reprisal arising from disclosure in the consultation
  • Both non-verbal and verbal communication skills are observed
  • Allows clinical skills to be observed
  • Allows self-observation by learners in addition to reviews by others
  • Powerful tool to analyse consultation process
  • The camera is threatening
  • Patient refusal
  • May interrupt the normal flow of consultation
  • Patient�s unwillingness to commit personal information
  • May provoke the learner�s emotions
  • The learner may feeling embarrassed or threatened by self-confrontation especially if he or she lacks confidence
Chart/ case reviews
  • Interactive sessions
  • Promotes problem-solving, diagnostic, interpretive and management skills
  • Flexible; can be conducted at any time
  • Time-consuming
Role play
  • Contextualised
  • Enhances communication and consultation skills
  • Useful for the teaching of difficult consultations in a controlled environment
  • Time-consuming
  • May provoke the learner�s emotions
  • Improves patient care
  • Improves clinical effectiveness
  • Repetitive and dull
  • Poor compliance
  • Time-consuming
  • Intrusion into clinical work
  • Student-centred
  • Fosters self-assessment skills
  • Encourages greater learner�s responsibility
  • Encourages the learner�s reflection of own knowledge, attitudes and beliefs
  • Work-intensive
Internet-based teaching
  • Accessible, convenient
  • Content can be updated regularly
  • Needs computing skills
Journal paper appraisal
  • Promotes critical appraisal skills
  • Needs teachers with research skills to facilitate discussions
Use of clinical skills laboratories
  • Allows for repeated practice and reinforcement of techniques before exposure to patients
  • Synthetic apparatus lacks realism

Lesson Plan: – Types and Format & Various Model (पाठ योजना:- प्रकार एवं प्रारूप एवं विभिन्न मॉडल)

Six Lesson Plan Formats

Microteaching( a teacher training technique for learning teaching skills.) & Instructional analysis(माइक्रो टीचिंग (शिक्षण कौशल सीखने के लिए एक शिक्षक प्रशिक्षण तकनीक।) और निर्देशात्मक विश्लेषण)

Effective ecosystem of Classroom(कक्षा का प्रभावी पारिस्थितिकी तंत्र)

a system with an “explicit extent,” i.e., a frame within which the biotic components—the students, teacher, aides—and the abiotic components are interdependent.


Textbook and library(कक्षा का प्रभावी पारिस्थितिकी तंत्र)


Qualities of Teacher(शिक्षक के गुण)


Evaluation & Assessment for learning(सीखने के लिए मूल्यांकन एवं मूल्यांकन)

Sem 3 P 9 U 1 (Assessment, Evaluation and Learning)


all the subjects that are taught in a school, college or university; the contents of a particular course of study
विद्यालय, महाविद्यालय या विश्‍वविद्यालय में पढ़ाए जाने वाले समस्‍त विषय; पाठ्‌यचर्या, पाठ्‌यक्रम; पाठ्‌यक्रम विशेष का पाठ्‌यविवरण

Curriculum & Pedagogy-merged

Factors affecting teaching and learning(शिक्षण एवं अधिगम को प्रभावित करने वाले कारक)


Teaching Aids and Hands on learning(शिक्षण सहायक सामग्री और सीखने का अभ्यास)


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